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ESSENTIAL COURSE UNIT ONE - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation)....


^ ESSENTIAL COURSE UNIT ONE
SPEECH PATTERNS

1. If I were you, I should keep an eye on that boy.

(Cf: If I am well, I shall have a walking holiday.)

If I had time, I should go to the theatre tonight.

If we were hungry, we should have a bite.

If you did not work enough, you wouldn't get good marks.

If Anne were in Moscow, she would ring me up.

If the weather were fine, we could go for a walk.

2. I rather like the idea of having a cup of tea then.

I dislike the idea of staying at home on such a fine day.

The children liked the idea of going for a walk.

All of us liked the idea of spending the day off out of town.

We disliked the idea of staying in town the whole summer.

Why don't you like the idea of having dinner at my place?

EXERCISES
I. Rewrite these sentences, using Pattern 1:
Example: a) If it is cold, we'll put on our warm coats.

If it were cold, we should put on our warm coats.

b) If my friends come to see me, I'll be very glad.

If my friends came to see me, I should be very glad.

1. If the boy is hungry, I'll give him something to eat. 2. If the supper is ready, we'll sit down to table. 3. If I get a good mark for my composition, I'll be happy. 4. If Mary has more free time, she'll read more. 5. If the weather changes, we'll go boating. 6. If I have no opportunity to see him, I'll be very sorry. 7. If it doesn't rain, I shan't have to take my umbrella with me. 8. If she finishes everything on Friday, she won't have to work on Saturday. 9. If you catch a cold, you'll have to stay at home. 10. If the child doesn't do what I tell him, I'll have to punish him.
II. Answer the following questions:
1. What would, you do if you were late for your lesson? 2. Where would you go if you had a holiday now? 3. Who(m) would you invite if you arranged a party? 4. How long would it take you to walk home from the University? 5. Which would you prefer to go to, the Art Theatre or the Bolshoi Theatre? 6. Would you feel glad if it were spring now? 7. Would you like to go to the disco after the lessons? 8. What film would you like to see?
III. Rewrite each of these sentences, using Pattern 2:
Example: The girl thought that it would be good to study a foreign language.

The girl liked the idea of studying a foreign language.

1. The students thought that it would be useful to work in the lab twice a week. 2. We liked the suggestion that we should visit our sick friend. 3. The children found that it would be interesting to go on an excursion. 4. We thought that it wouldn't be good to stay indoors all day long. 5. Wouldn't you like to go to the theatre tonight? 6. All of us thought that it would be nice to arrange a party at our University. 7. Is there anyone against our spending the holidays in the holiday camp? 8. We thought that it would be good to go to the cinema after the lessons.
IV. Translate these sentences into English:
1. Если бы я не устала, я бы пошла осматривать город. 2. Мы бы не пошли завтра на этот спектакль, если бы это не была премьера. 3. Если бы я жила не так далеко, я бы заходила к вам почаще. 4. Если бы он говорил погромче, публика слушала бы его с большим интересом. 5. Будь у нее плохая память, она не запоминала бы сразу столько цифр (figures). 6. Я ничего не имела бы против поездки в Крым, если бы там не было сейчас так жарко. 7. Нам всем понравилась его мысль встретиться в начале учебного года.
V. Act out the dialogue. Make up your own after the model:
Diсk: What would you do if you had a boat?

Tоm: I would sail in it of course.

Dick: Where would you sail?

Tom: All around the coasts of Britain. I would even try to sail across the Atlantic if my boat were big enough.

Dick: What would you do if your parents didn't let you sail?

Tоm: I would run away from home, I suppose.

Dick: What would you do if your boat were wrecked in a storm?

Tom: I would get drowned, I suppose.

Diсk: It is just as well you haven't got a boat, I suppose.
VI. Explain the meaning of the following sayings and illustrate them:
1. If it were not for hope, the heart would break. 2. If the pills were pleasant, they would not be gilded. 3. If there were no clouds, we should not enjoy the sun. 4. If things were to be done twice all would be wise.
^ TEXT. ANNE MEETS HER GLASS
The children fixed their eyes upon Anne. Anne gazed back, feeling helpless.

"Now, children," began Miss Enderby firmly, "you are very, very lucky this term5 to have Miss Lacey for your new teacher."

Anne gave a watery smile. The Children's faces were unmoved.

"Miss Lacey," repeated Miss Enderby with emphasis. "Can you say that?"

"Miss Lacey," chorused the class obediently.

"Perhaps you could say 'Good morning' to your new teacher?" suggested Miss Enderby in an imperative tone.

"Good morning. Miss Lacey," came the polite chorus.

"Good morning, children," responded Anne in a voice which bore no resemblance to her own.

Miss Enderby motioned to the children to take their seats. "I should give out paper and coloured pencils," said Miss Enderby, "as soon as you've called the register6. Keep them busy while you're finding your way about the cupboards7 and so on."

She gave a swift look round the class. "I expect you to help Miss Lacey in every way," said the headmistress. "D'you hear me, Arnold?"

The little boy addressed, who had been crossing and uncrossing his eyes in an ugly manner for the enjoyment of his neighbours, looked suitably crest-fallen.

"If I were you, I should keep an eye on that boy," murmured Miss Enderby. "Broken home — brother in Borstal8 — and some rather dreadful habits!"

Anne looked with fresh interest at Arnold and thought he looked quite different from what Miss Enderby said about him. Far too innocent and apple-cheeked to have such a record. But even as she looked, she saw his pink face express his scorn of Miss Enderby who was giving her final messages to the new teacher.

"Break9 at ten forty-five, dear," said the headmistress. "Come straight to the staff room. I will wait there till you join us. I will introduce you to those you didn't meet on your first visit How do you like the idea of having a cup of tea then? We need rest after all. If there's anything that puzzles you, I shall be in my room. You can depend on me. Just send a message by one of the children."

She made her way to the door and waited before it, eyebrows raised as she turned her gaze upon the children. They gazed back in some bewilderment

"Is no one going to remember his manners?" asked Miss Enderby.

With a nervous start Anne hastened forward to the door, but was waved back by a movement of her headmistress's hand. A dozen or more children made a rush to open the door. A freckled girl with two skinny red plaits was the first to drag open the door. She was rewarded by a smile.

"Thank you, dear, thank you," said Miss Enderby and sailed majestically into the corridor. There came a faint sigh of relief as the door closed behind her, and the forty-six tongues which had so far kept unnaturally silent began to wag cheerfully. Anne watched this change with some dismay. She remembered with sudden relief some advice given her at college in just such a situation.

"Stand quite still, be quite calm, and gradually the children will become conscious that you are waiting. Never, never attempt to shout them down."

So Anne stood her ground waiting for the chattering to subside. But the noise grew in volume as conversations became more animated. One or two children ran across the room to see their distant friends. Two little boys attacked each other. A child with birthday cards was displaying their beauties to an admiring crowd round her desk. Arnold had removed his blue pullover and was attempting to pull his shirt over his head, in order to show his friends a scar on his shoulderblade.

Amidst growing chaos Anne remained silent. She looked at the clock which jerked from one minute to the next and decided to let it leap once more before she abandoned hope.

One crumb of comfort, if comfort it could be called, remained with her. This was an outburst of natural high spirits. Her presence, she noted, meant nothing at all to them.

A chair fell over, someone yelped with pain, there was a burst of laughter, and Anne saw the clock jump to another minute. Anne advanced into action.

"To your desks!" she roared, "And quickly!"

With a pleasurable shock she saw her words obeyed. Within a minute order had returned. Refreshed by the break the children turned attentive eyes upon her.

Anne's self-esteem crept back.

(From "Fresh from the Country" by Miss Reed)

^ VOCABULARY NOTES

1. to look υ i/t 1. смотреть, глядеть, е.g. I looked (up, down) at the opposite house, but saw no lights in its windows.

Syn. to stare, to gaze

to look means "to use one's eyes, to try to see", е.g. He looked at me, but didn't recognize me.

to stare means "to look steadily, with wide-open eyes, often with curiosity or surprise, or vacantly (бессмысленно, рассеянно)". We may stare at a person or thing, into the water, distance, fire or anything that has depth (пристально смотреть, глазеть, таращить/пялить глаза), е.g. Не stared at me as if I had asked him to do something impossible. He stared at the fire, deep in thought.

to gaze means "to look at smb. or smth. (or into smb.'s eyes) usu. long and steadily with interest, love, desire, in wonder, admiration, etc.", е.g. He's very fond of this picture, he can gaze at it for hours. The lovers stood with their hands clasped, gazing into each other's eyes.

to look about осматриваться, оглядываться по сторонам, е.g. I looked about, but saw no people anywhere.

^ Look ahead! Берегись!

to look (a thing) through просматривать что-л., е.g. Look through those documents, please.

to look after заботиться, ухаживать за кем-n., чём-n., е.g. I'll look after the child. Don't forget to look after the flowers when I'm away.

to look for искать кого-л., что-л., е.g. I've been looking for you since the very morning.

to look forward to (smth. or doing smth.) предвкушать что-л., с удовольствием ожидать чего-л., е.g. John looked forward to seeing Mario and his wife. Students always look forward to their holidays.

Look here! Послушай! е.g. Look here, wouldn't it be better to stay indoors in such nasty weather?

2. казаться, выглядеть (followed by an adjective, noun or like), е.g. He looks sad. The child looks ill (well). She looks like a real teacher. It looks like rain.

Note: казаться has two English equivalents — to look and to seem; to look means выглядеть, е.g. He looks young for his age. She looks beautiful "n this dress. She looks a child.; to seem means производить впечатление (it expresses various degrees of doubt), e.g. She seems (to be) clever. This village seems (to be) quite small now. He seems (to be) well educated.

look n 1. взгляд, е.g. There was something strange in his look.

Syn. stare, gaze, е.g. Lanny returned the man's stare, but didn't utter a word. The girl blushed when she noticed the stranger's fixed gaze.

to have a look at взглянуть, е.g. Have a look at this photo, do you recognize the man?

Note: The English for взгляд = точка зрения is idea, opinion, (point of) view, е.g. I don't know his point of view оn (views on, idea(s) of, opinion of) this subject.

2. выражение, е.g. A took of pleasure came to her face. There was an angry look in her eyes,

2. to differ υi i. различаться, отличаться (from smb. or smth. in smth.), е.g. The two brothers differ in their tastes. His plan differs from all the others.; 2. не соглашаться, расходиться во взглядах (from/with smb. in smth.), е.g. I differ from (with) you in this matter.

Ant. agree (with smb.; to smth.), е.g. Let's agree to differ (пусть каждый останется при своем мнении).

different adj 1. непохожий, не такой, отличный от (from), е.g. Не is quite different from what I thought him to be. I want a different kind of book this time (but I prefer books of a different kind). Our views on life are different.

^ Ant. alike, е.g. Our tastes are alike.

Note: Don't confuse the words different and another which may be translated by the same Russian word другой; е.g. I want another (другой = еще один) piece of cake. I want a different (другой = другого copra, вида и т. д.) piece of cake. Let's try another (еще один) variant Let's by a different (иного рода) variant.

2. разный, различный, е.g. A department store sells many different things. Every day our students get different written assignments.

difference n разница, различие, е.g. The difference between our views is not very great. I don't find much difference in the styles of these writers.

to make some (no, not much) difference (to smb.), е.g. It won't make much difference whether we do it today or tomorrow. You may stay or leave, it makes no difference to me.

3. rest υ i/t 1. отдыхать, лежать, спать; давать отдых, е.g. Не rested for an hour before going on with his work. She likes to rest after dinner. They stopped to rest their horses.

2. опираться, покоиться, держаться на чём-n., е.g. The roof rests on eight columns. There is always a cloud resting on the top of this mountain.

3. оставаться (лежать); класть, прислонять, е.g. Her fingers touched his forehead and rested there. She sat with her elbows resting on the table.

Note: The Russian word оставаться has several English equivalents, е.g. Пусть все остается как есть. Let the matter rest. Я не хочу здесь оставаться. I don't want to stay here. У нас осталось только 5 рублей. Only 5 roubles are left Все остается без изменений Everything remains without any changes.

rest n покой, отдых, сон, е.g. Rest is necessary after work. I had a good night's rest. We had several rests on our way up the mountains. But: Он отдыхал на юге. Не spent his holiday in the South.

rest n (always with def. article) остаток, остальное, остальная часть чего-л.

the rest of (the time, the books, etc.), е.g. Have you written all the exercises? — No, only half of them. The rest (of the exercises) may be done orally. Only five of us were present at the lesson, the rest (of the group) went to the meeting. I'll take an apple and you may take the rest.

4. comfortable adj 1. удобный; комфортабельный; уютный, е.g. a comfortable chair, room, bed, house; comfortable shoes, etc.; 2. predic разг. довольный, спокойный, чувствующий себя удобно, е.g. I'm sure you'll be very comfortable there.

to make oneself comfortable, е.g. Mr. Murdoch made himself comfortable in a chair and ordered a strong black coffee.

Ant. uncomfortable

comfort n 1. утешение, поддержка, е.g. The news brought comfort to all of us. He was a great comfort to his parents.; 2. успокоение, покой, отдых, е.g. to be fond of comfort, to live in comfort

^ Ant. discomfort

comfort υt утешать, успокаивать

comforting adj утешительный, успокоительный, е.g. comforting words.

Note: convenient adj means suitable, handy, serving to avoid trouble or difficulty; е.g. convenient time, method, tool, place, etc. Will this bus be convenient to/for you? Let's arrange a convenient time and place for the conference.

^ Ant. inconvenient

convenience n 1. удобство (the quality of being convenient or suitable), е.g. at your earliest convenience; for convenience; 2. (pl.) удобства (device, arrangement, etc. that is useful or convenient, е.g. central heating, hot water supply), е.g. The house has all modern conveniences. Ant. inconvenience

5. to run (ran, run) υi/t 1. бежать, бегать, е.g. 1 ran all the way for fear of being late. As soon as we fired, the enemy ran.

2. ходить, плыть, курсировать (о трамваях, автобусах и пр.), е.g. Trams run on rails. Motor cars ran along ordinary roads. The buses run every five minutes.

3. течь, литься, е.g. Torrents of water ran down the streets. Rivers run into the sea. Don't you hear the water running in the kitchen? If you have a bad cold, your nose runs.

4. тянуться, е.g. For several miles the road ran across a plain.

Note: For the Russian тянуться = простираться the verb stretch is used, е.g. The forest stretched to the South for many miles.

5. гласить, рассказывать, говорить(ся), е.g. So the story runs. The story runs ....

to run into smb. случайно встретиться с кем-n.; to run into smth. натолкнуться на что-л., е.g. Our car ran into the bus. I ran into a friend of mine on my way-home.; to run across smb./smth. случайно встретить (натолкнуться на что-л.), е.g. The other day I ran across a very interesting article in the newspaper.: to run over smb. переехать, задавить кого-л., also: to be run over (by a car), е.g. But for the skill of the driver the man would have been run over by the bus.

runner n бегун

6. join υt/i 1. соединять(ся), объединяться), е.g. I couldn't join (together) the two halves of the vase, because a small piece was missing. Where do the two streams join (each other)?

^ Syn. unite

N о t e: to join usu. means "to put two things together", е.g. The island was joined to the mainland with a bridge.; to unite usu. means "to join together (by a common aim or bond) several objects so as to form one new unit", е.g. We united all our forces to drive the enemy out of our country. Workers of the world, unite! The United Nations Organization (UNO) was formed in 1945 in San Francisco.

2. присоединяться (к), е.g. Will you join me in my walk? We'll join you in a few minutes.

3. входить в компанию, вступать в члены, е.g. If I were you I should join this club. He was twenty-two when he joined the array.

7. depend υi 1. зависеть от (on/upon smb. for smth.), е.g. We depend on the newspapers for information about world events. He depends on his sister for a living. Children usually depend on their parents (находятся на иждивении родителей).; 2. полагаться, рассчитывать на кого-л., что-л., е.g. You can depend upon the man. I depend on you to do it. Can I depend on this time-table or is it an old one?

It (all) depends как сказать; в зависимости от обстоятельств, е.g. Will you finish your work on time? — It depends.

^ NOTES ON SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS

1. Synonyms are words expressing the same notion, but differing by certain additional characteristics. E.g. to look, to stare and to gaze express the same notion of turning one's eyes on something or somebody, but stare and gaze differ by their emotional colourings (see item 1 of Vocabulary Notes) whereas look describes the notion generally, without any additional characteristics. Such a general word in the group of synonyms is called the synonymic dominant.

^ To glance is another synonym of this group which differs from the rest of them by duration: it means looking at something briefly, passingly, a moment only.

2. Antonyms are words with contrasted meanings. E. g. different — alike; convenient — inconvenient; love — hate; up — down.

^ ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (I)

Words

chorus n, υ differ υ join υ

comfort n, υ difference n look n, υ

comfortable adj different adj rest n, υ

convenience n gaze n, υ run υ

convenient adj headmistress n stare n, υ

depend υ unite υ

Word Combinations

to fix one's eyes on/upon smb. to keep an eye on smb.

to feel helpless to give (send) a message

to give a smile (a nod, a look, etc.) to turn one's eyes (gaze)

to bear (to have) a strong upon smb./smth.

resemblance to to run across

to motion to smb. to run into

to give out (pencils, leaflets, readers, to run over

workcards, sets of material, etc.) to shout smb. down

to call the register (the roll) to abandon hope

EXERCISES
I. Read the test and talk on the following points (A. Grammar, B. Word usage):
A. 1. Why is the Present Perfect used in "... as soon as you've called the register"? 2. Why is the Past Perfect Continuous used in "... who had been crossing and uncrossing his eyes in an ugly manner ..."? 3. Why is the Present Indefinite used in "... till you join us"? and in "If there's anything that puzzles you ..."? 4. Tick off all the sentences with the oblique moods. Translate them.

B. Pick out all the words and phrases describing the children's actions.
II. Read the following words with silent t, p, gh. Memorize them:
hasten, fasten, listen, Christmas, castle, whistle, jostle, nestle, wrestle; cupboard, pneumonia, psychology, raspberry; neighbour, nightingale, straight, naughty, high, height, through, sigh.
III. a) Write the Past Indefinite and Past Participle of the verbs:
grow, creep, bear, break, keep, think, leap, mean, fall, find, feel, say, cling, hear, meet, run, show;
b) the Past Indefinite and Present Participle of the verbs:
differ, prefer, murmur, appear, occur, recover, remember, chatter, refer, stir, water, fear, offer, drag, wag, plan, chat, slip, beg.
IV. Find nouns related to the verbs below. Pay special attention to the spelling of the suffix -ence/-ance. Place them in two columns:
depend, differ, exist, accept, resemble, attend, perform, insist, occur.
V. What nouns are these adjectives derived from? What is the meaning of the suffixes -еd, -у? Translate the adjectives:
a) freckled, nosed, haired, winged, homed, bearded, feathered;

b) watery, skinny, grassy, silky, bony, branchy, wavy, stony.
VI. Answer these questions:
1. How was Anne introduced to her class? 2. What did she feel at that moment? What words does the author choose to describe her feelings? 3. What instructions did the headmistress give to the young teacher? What do you think of them? 4. Why did Anne "look with fresh interest at Arnold?" Describe Arnold's appearance and behaviour. 5. How did the other children behave in Miss Enderby's presence? (Find words describing their behaviour.) 6. Why do you think "there came a faint sigh of relief" after Miss Enderby left the classroom? Describe the children's behaviour after she left. 7. What advice given her at college did Anne remember? Did she follow the advice? What was the result? Why did the children behave like that? 8. How did Anne restore the order? Do you think it was the only way out? 9. Comment on the words: "Anne's self-esteem crept back".
VII. Comment on the meaning of the prepositions for, in, with in the sentences below:
A. 1. ... you are very, very lucky this term to have Miss Lacey for your new teacher. 2. They chose him for their leader. 3. Must you have George for a master — here, and our mother for a school-mistress? 4. I still want you for my wife.

B. 1. "Perhaps you could say 'Good morning' to your new teacher?" suggested Miss Enderby in an imperative tone. 2. "Good morning, children," responded Anne in a voice which bore no resemblance to her own. 3. They conversed in a whisper.

C. 1. They gazed back in some bewilderment. 2. If a man is in grief, who cheers him; in trouble, who consoles him; in wrath, who soothes him; in joy, who makes him double happy; in prosperity, who rejoices; in disgrace, who backs him against the world? Who but woman?

D. 1. Anne looked with fresh interest at Arnold. 2. Anne watched this change with some dismay. 3. With a nervous start Anne hastened forward to the door. 4. She remembered with sudden relief some advice given her at college in just such a situation,

E. 1. ... someone yelped with pain. 2. His voice trembled with horror. 3. He was dying with hunger. 4. The boys were speechless with fear. 5. Ruth's eyes were wide with wonder.
VIII. Form adjectives and nouns from the given words with the help of the prefixes an-, in-, mis-, dis-:
convenient, convenience; comfort, comfortable; dependent, dependence; different, difference; able, capable; important; experienced; obedient; understanding; honesty.
IX. a) Fill in prepositions where necessary:
Can you remember your first day... school? It was probably rather confusing. I am sure you ran ... your mother thinking she was deserting you. When the child goes ... school... his first day, he has to watch ... his mother leaving. The teacher must convince him that... the end ... the day his mother and his home will still be there. It is difficult to make the newcomer join ... a game or a walk. A new life, completely different ... what he is used ... begins.

The mothers are as upset as their children. They hang...... their eyes fixed ... their children and dislike leaving them ... their fate.

The best way to deal... the situation is to get the child used ... the idea... school, to help him ... every way. Much depends ... the parents. ... the beginning ... the term the mother should take her child to see the teacher and to look ... the school. The first day should be something to look......and not to be feared.
b) Retell what you've read. c) What measures would you suggest to settle the newcomers? X. Study Vocabulary Notes, translate the illustrative sentences into Russian and write your own sentences with the new words and phrases. XI. Use stare or gaze instead of look where possible:
1. It's impolite to look at people like that. 2. A big crowd stood on the pavement looking at a broken car. 3. No wonder people stand looking at this picture for hours: it's beautiful. 4. The little boys stood looking at each other ready to start a fight. 5. Look at her: again she is looking out of the window with that strange expression of hers. 6. When I looked at her eyes I guessed that she had cried. 7. The Greek myth runs that Narcissus looked at his own reflection in the water until he fell in love with it. 8. He stood looking around as if he tried to impress on his memory everything he saw.
XII. Fill in a) look or seem:
1. The weather ... quite warm though it's only 5°C above zero. 2. The children ... tired but they... greatly pleased with the trip, don't they? 3. The host and the hostess ... a bit oldfashioned, but they ... to be hospitable and friendly. 4. She ... to be very light-minded, but she only... it, in fact she is a very serious and hard-working student. 5. My brother says that people usually ... what they are and I believe that people are very often quite different from what they... to be.
b) another or different.
1. The teacher tried to explain the rule in a ... way and I understood it at once. 2. The schoolboy returned the book he had read and asked for... book, but of a... kind, he said, as he wanted to have a rest from detective stories. 3. I asked for a pair of shoes of a... kind, but the shop-girl said that the rest of the shoes were not my size.
с) stretch or run:
1. A small stream ... along the road. 2. These steppes ... to the South for miles and miles. 3. The path ... across the field for a mile and then was lost in the forest. 4. No matter how hard I looked I saw only a vast plain... before me. 5. The ugly scar (шрам) ... right across the man's left cheek. 6. For how many kilometers does this forest...?
d) comfortable or convenient
1. I like to sleep on a camp-bed, I find it very .... 2. I believe Friday the only ... day for our meeting, we have only four lectures on that day. 3. Though the flat was rather .... warm, light and cosy, it was not... for our work as it was rather small. 4. These shoes are very... for wear in wet weather as they have rubber soles.
e) join or unite:
1. The two streams ... at the foot of the mountain. 2. ... we stand, divided we fall. 3. One by one the children ... in the game. 4. The partisans’ detachment... the regular army and the enemy lost the battle against their ... forces. 5. All peace-loving people should ... in their straggle against a new war. 6. Won't you... me in a walk?
ХIII. Paraphrase the following:
1. It is of no importance. 2. Rivers flow into the sea. 3. You can't rely on him. 4. Make yourself at home 5. French is unlike English in having far more verbal inflexions. 6. He seems to be ill. 7. Connect these points with a line. 8. This street stretches east and west. 9. He refused to live at the expense of his parents. 10. I disagree with you. 11. I'll drive the car into the garage. 12. Will you come with us? 13. I met him by chance in London last week. 14. Listen to me, Tom! 15. This tool is easy to use. 16. These are not the same people with the same name. 17. Why is Jane silent?
XIV. Translate these sentences into Russian. Write your own sentences with the new words and phrases:
1. He looked about the room and caught sight of the case containing the jewels which had been carelessly left open on the table. 2. The difference was curious between her intense expectation of the previous day and her present indifference. 3. United we stand, divided we fall. 4. My father reminded me that I was entirely dependent upon him. 5. The many men he ran across, belonging to a different world, had filled him perhaps with admiration and envy. 6. I'm always doing things on the spur of the moment — to my own inconvenience and other people's. 7. It made him uncomfortable to alter his plans and think out something new. 8. He was angry with Norah because she had not let the matter rest.
XV. Retell the text: a) in indirect speech; b) as if you were Anne. XVI. Write: a) a letter from Anne to a friend of hers about her first experience at school, b) an answer of a friend of Anne's to this letter. XVII. Make up dialogues based upon the text between: a) Anne and a friend of hers, a young teacher discussing their first lessons; b) Anne and Miss Enderby discussing the problem of discipline in class; c) Anne and her college teacher discussing situations like that described in the text. XVIII. Miss Barrett, a young teacher from Bel Kaufman's 'Up the Down Staircase', once "had an epidemic of unprepared students". Study the reasons they gave for neglecting to do their homework. What other reasons could they have given? Elect one student to play the part of the teacher who should respond in each case. Role-play the whole situation.
^ Why I Didn't Do My Homework

— I know homework is essential to our well-being, and I did it but I got into a fight with some kid on our way to school and he threw it in the gutter.

— My dog chewed it.

— I didn't know we were supposed to do it.

— I fell asleep on the subway because I stayed up all night doing my homework, so when it stopped at my station I ran through the door not to be late and left it on the seat on the subway.

— I did it but left it home by mistake.

— The baby spilled milk on it.

— My brother took "my" homework instead of "his".

— The page was missing from my book.

— I lost my book and just found it.

— There's no room in my house now my uncle moved in and I have to sleep in the hall and couldn't use the kitchen table.

— Someone stole it.

— What homework?
XIX. Translate the following putting it in your own words. Comment on what yon have read:
... Детей нет — есть люди, но с иным масштабом понятий, с иным запасом опыта, иными влечениями, иной игрой чувств. Помни, что мы их не знаем...

Все современное воспитание направлено на то, чтобы ребенок был удобен, последовательно, шаг за шагом, стремится усыпить, подавить, истребить все, что является волей и свободой ребенка, стойкостью его духа, силой его требований.

Вежлив, послушен, хорош, удобен, а и мысли нет о том, что будет внутренне безволен н жизненно немощен....

Обратили ли вы внимание, как часто, когда раздается в передней звонок, вы слышите просьбу:

— Я отворю?

Во-первых, замок у входных дверей трудный, во-вторых, чувство, что там, за дверью, стоит взрослый, который сам не может сладить и ждет, когда ты, маленький, поможешь...

Вот какие небольшие победы празднует ребенок, уже грезящий о дальних путешествиях, в мечтах он — Робинзон на безлюдном острове, а в действительности рад-радехонек, когда позволят выглянуть в окошко. (Януш Корчак. Как любить детей.)
XX. Arrange a talk on the following topics
1. Difficulties awaiting young teachers.

2. Reasons for children's being unmanageable.

3. How to direct a child's energy into the right channels.

4. Ideal upbringing.
XXI. Translate these sentences:
1. Я огляделась вокруг и увидела, что в поселке (village) не осталось ни одного деревянного дома. 2. Старый доктор остался тем же добрым, искренним человеком, каким (that) мы знали его с детства. 3. Остается по крайней мере месяц до нашего отъезда, но мы уже с нетерпением ждем отпуска и строим разные планы на лето. 4. Дай мне знать, если ты решишь остаться у своей тети на остальную часть каникул, я тогда присоединюсь к тебе. 5. Остается одно: попросить эту старушку присмотреть за детьми. 6. Послушай, я подмету пол и помою посуду, а ты сделаешь все остальное, ладно? — Хорошо. 7. Несколько человек остались на волейбольной площадке, а остальные игроки пошли в бассейн поплавать. 8. Вы ищете ваше пальто? Оно осталось в саду. Разрешите, я его принесу (fetch it).
XXII. Try your hand at teaching. 1. The situation gives below could cause difficulties for the teacher. Describe how you would handle the situation in the teacher's position. Decide amongst your group which is the most practical solution;
Bill, a fourth former, was always telling the class about his dog Timber, the tricks he could perform, what a wonderful watch-dog he was and how Timber would protect Bill. Each week he would come to school and tell about the wonders of Timber.

As it turned out, Bill did not own a dog and none of his relatives or close friends had such a dog.
2. Learn to use alternative ways of controlling the class, using polite requests rather than direct commands.
Notice:

a) The following forms express annoyance and irritation.

— Do try to work on your own.

— Just speak up a little!

b) You can make your commands sound more polite by using either a low rising tone or words, phrases and structures like "please; I'm afraid; I think; perhaps; don't you think; I (don't) want you to...; I (don't) expect you to...; would you like; would you, please; ..., will you; ..., could you; what if...; let's/let's not."
Assignments: 1. Practise giving instructions to pupils in a polite manner, use the phrases below:
go on to the next exercise, carry on (proceed) reading, repeat what you said, copy this off the board, work in twos (threes), share the textbook, try the next item, practise the irregular verbs, listen carefully to what I say, etc.

2. Take it in turns to play the part of the teacher beginning and finishing the lesson. Make sure that you don't sound too straightforward. (See "Classroom English", Sections II and III.)

^ LABORATORY EXERCISES (I)
1. Listen to the text "Anne Meets Her Class", mark the stresses and tunes, repeat the text following the model. 2. Respond as shown in the models, check your replies. 3. Combine the sentences into one conditional sentence. 4. Write a spelling-translation test: a) Translate the given phrases into English. b) Check them with the key. 5. Answer the questions using the phrases "to like the idea/dislike the idea". 6. Translate the given sentences into English. Check your sentences with the key. 7. Listen to the Jokes connected with school life. Get ready to retell them in indirect speech.

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